Awaking Before Death (A farce in three acts)
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His daughter, Lily, married the publisher and philanthropist Sir Bruce Ingram. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Men-at-the-Bar second ed. London: Hazell, Watson, and Viney.
A Dictionary of the Drama. Burt Franklin. The days of his vanity. New York Times. Retrieved 8 August Cambridge University Press. Retrieved on 24 May Information from the ''Theatre in Sydney '' page. Information from the ''Theatre in Melbourne '' page. Categories : English opera librettists People associated with Gilbert and Sullivan births deaths Writers from Manchester Alumni of the Victoria University of Manchester English male dramatists and playwrights.
Namespaces Article Talk. Views Read Edit View history. The same body mold continued to be used for porcelains well into the nineteenth-century, with changes to the head and coloring to portray both John Philip Kemble — and Edmund Kean — in the role.
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Garrick was a superb character actor and sensational as Sir John Brute, shown here in drag as Lady Brute, swinging a club. It was first played by Garrick in the —44 season, opposite Peg Woffington,  but Hannah Pritchard  and Susannah Cibber  were others who enjoyed success as Lady Brute. But Garrick transformed the lead roles. It had a monstrous effect. The Alchymist  was one of three Ben Jonson comedies that Garrick reworked, making Abel Drugger one of his earliest and most enduring comic triumphs.
By adapting the role of Drugger to his own talents for character acting, he created a box office sensation. He performed the role eighty times from — and the play earned record receipts for a single performance of any play at Drury Lane. Garrick saw an opportunity for himself in the only known play of Benjamin Hoadly — , an English physician and friend, enlivened the piece with a prologue and epilogue, and made it a triumph of the —47 season at Covent Garden.
Garrick restored this Shakespeare play, which had only been staged 8 times since , to a central place in the repertory. He spent months preparing for the role of Benedick, and cast Mrs. Garrick introduced changes and characters to Lethe endlessly over the years, including adding Lord Chalkstone sixteen years after the play's first performance, a character which became one of his most celebrated parts.
Old, gouty Lord Chalkstone is the only one who refuses to drink the waters of Lethe, and Garrick gives the irascible Lord some of the best lines in the play. The playbill, seen here , "with the last new character" Chalkstone , records a performance later in the same year. For more on Lethe, jump directly to The Playwright and Adapter.
As recounted by Ian McIntyre in his biography:.
This scene is captured from an earlier performance of The Wonder in which Ann Barry  played opposite Garrick. For his last performance Garrick brought back a very popular character, Don Felix, in a play that was clearly a favorite for theatergoers, but many could not believe the end had come. Kitty Clive  wrote from her retirement home in Twickenham, "Is it really true that you have put an end to the glory of Drury Lane? The Wonder may strike us as a novel choice for a grand exit, but Garrick had a keen sense of what audiences wanted.
The printrun also suggests a certain vogue. The Folger has seven editions of The Wonder , from that of Dublin to this one, printed fifty years later London, Centlivre died nine years after the publication of the first edition, never knowing the fame her play would enjoy. Not surprisingly, Garrick's talents and ambition drew him quickly towards theater management, where he could shape the entire spectacle. He cut his teeth as co-manager of Smock Alley in Dublin for the —46 season, with Thomas Sheridan.
Garrick's continued success under Rich had the desired effect, and he was able to strike a deal with Lacy for joint management of Drury Lane. Lacy took responsibility for everything relating to the building, while Garrick took responsibility for everything relating to productions.
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The caricature seen here refers to a pivotal moment in the ongoing rivalry between Drury Lane and Covent Garden. That theater was built in , with a capacity of about 2, The renovation brought capacity to about 2,, and added a fashionable neo-classical facade.
The renovated theater was completely replaced in The current Drury Lane is an replacement of the building. A typical season at Drury Lane might include fifty different mainpieces,  plus countless musical interludes, dances, afterpieces,  prologues and epilogues. The five-act mainpiece served as the main course, with a prologue as appetizer to set the stage, and music or dancing between the acts to cleanse the palate.
The brief afterpiece—usually a farce or rollicking pantomime—provided an enjoyable dessert, the lighter the better if the mainpiece had been a heavy tragedy. This bill is fairly typical, with thirty-four lines of type plus a horizontal rule. This engraving shows the interior of Drury Lane being admired after the renovations, with the different seating areas clearly visible.
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The most expensive seats, the Boxes, form the bottom tier and sides. In front of them, starting below stage level, is the slightly less expensive Pit. Next in price comes the First Gallery, or middle balcony, and cheapest of all is the Upper Gallery, at the very top. On benefit nights,  Garrick sometimes still permitted audience members who paid a premium to sit onstage.
Action still usually took place at the front of the stage, with entrances and exits from large proscenium doors like the one on the right of the print, though characters were also revealed further back stage by painted wings, drops and flats  being pulled apart. Audience members brought certain expectations to the theater, and did not hesitate to express themselves when expectations went unmet. Sometimes this disapproval took the form of hissing and booing. Occasionally, things became violent. Garrick encountered public wrath most famously in , when he hired Jean-Georges Noverre — and his French dancers to perform a grand afterpiece, The Chinese Festival.
In , riots were threatened at both theaters because half-price admittance after the third act of the mainpiece was no longer allowed.
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The half-price riot  shown here happened at Covent Garden. But in the end they capitulated. Both houses returned to a half-price policy, and charges were dropped against the Covent Garden rioters where the damage had been most severe. This caricature shows him paying too much attention to spectacle and costumes while trampling on the works of Shakespeare, Ben Jonson, and Nicholas Rowe. Before , stage lighting in England consisted of visible chandeliers above the stage and a row of footlights along the front of the stage. The hidden lights were placed in vertical strips behind the wing  fronts, providing light from the side that could be dimmed by shutters.
Sunrises, sunsets, and other occasions for changing light suddenly appeared in Drury Lane productions, and actors were able to use more of the stage, since shadows no longer hid the rear.
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More striking changes to Drury Lane spectacle came after , when Garrick hired the French artist Philippe-Jacques de Loutherbourg — to implement an integrated program of lighting, scenic design, stage mechanics, and costume. Using variable lighting and painted transparencies, de Loutherbourg created dynamic color and scenic effects. Pages of a Drury Lane journal give financial details for the theater. Account books reveal regular expenditures for such staples as pens and candles, not to mention salaries.
The Drury Lane prompter kept a notebook of "Plays etc. In it, he noted whether particular performances went over well or not in order to help Garrick plan a profitable season. In the town of Stratford sought Garrick's help in dedicating and decorating their new town hall. In return for a grant of freedom of the town—presented in a mulberry wood chest—Garrick supplied a statue of Shakespeare for an exterior niche, and paintings of both Shakespeare and himself.
But Garrick did not stop there. He planned, financed, and was master of ceremonies for a three-day grand Shakespeare Jubilee. Satirized and eulogized almost in equal measure, torrential rains and flooding marred a festival that was an expensive pilgrimage of pomp and worship marked by serenades and recitations, fireworks and balls, horse races, commemorative memorabilia A tribute to the memory of the man rather than the writings and performance, the Jubilee is perhaps the most important cultural event in the history of Shakespeare's reputation.
This event marked the creation of Shakespeare as England's national poet, and the beginning of an industry of "bardolatry" that continues to this day. Charles Dibdin — started his career as an actor and singer, but went on to compose almost two hundred works for the stage, and over eight hundred songs. His music for the Jubilee was one of his first assignments after being hired away from Covent Garden to be house composer for Drury Lane. Dibdin composed for both the Stratford festival and the Garrick farce performed later that fall.
But he enjoyed neither the writing nor his working relationship with Garrick, writing in his autobiography that:.
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But he relented, showing up at the last minute with the Drury Lane musicians in disguise, and in time to serenade the delighted Garrick on dawn of the first day, Wednesday September 6, The broadside Warwickshire Lads provides words to a song that was to be both immortalized and widely parodied. The tune by Charles Dibdin was played at Stratford by the band of the Warwickshire Regiment  and was later adopted as their regimental march.
During his time, Garrick was well known in pubs and coffee houses for his song lyrics. The woodcut depicts the Westminster Abbey memorial statue. As part of the extensive advance publicity, these plates were engraved prior to the Jubilee and published just afterwards, in the September and October issues of Oxford Magazine.