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See Jeffrey W.
Wirtz and Jeffrey A. Larsen eds. Philipp C. For a critique of this policy, that goes back to the Clinton administration, see Scott D. The nuclear strike contingencies mentioned are: a Iraqi attack on Israel or its neighbouring countries; b North Korean attack on South Korea; and c a conflict with China over the Taiwan issue. See Seymour M. Andrew Prosser and Herbert Scoville, Jr. See Peter D. Neo-pessimists claim that the superpower balance during the Cold War was more precarious than optimists admitted and that emerging nuclear weapon states will have even more problems managing their nuclear arsenals than did the superpowers.
To a certain extent, the George W. See Joseph Kahn and David E. A1, A6. Cirincione et al. According to Wade Huntley, time is running out to prevent North Korea from becoming a full-fledged nuclear-weapon state. See William C. Iran has not yet ratified the Additional Protocol.
On the A. There have been reports of US Air Force contingency planning for the use of tactical nuclear weapons against Iran's main uranium enrichment plant at Natanz. There is a wide-ranging literature on North Korea's nuclear weapon ambitions and US non-proliferation policy toward North Korea.
Middle East Forum Wires
While it is prudent to plan for worst-case scenarios, it is irresponsible to assume that the worst case is the most likely case…The United States cannot be certain that North Korea has nuclear weapons or even that it can produce nuclear weapons. Joseph Cirincione and Jon B. As of this writing 15 Nov.
The US said it has agreed to negotiate with the North only within a working group to be set up within the framework of the six-party talks and that it has made no commitments with regard to lifting sanctions. Thomas Graham, Jr. See e. On the requirements for a successful use of coercive diplomacy as a non-proliferation strategy, see Bruce W.
Jentleson and Christopher A. See Cohen and Graham Jr. The Bush administration has announced that it will not resubmit the treaty to the US Senate for ratification. Gallucci goes even further, arguing that the proposed US-India nuclear cooperation deal would destroy the international norm against nuclear proliferation embodied in the NPT.
Gallucci, Dean of the Edmund A. Daryl G.
Security Council Resolution adopted unanimously on 28 April , calls on all states to establish domestic controls to prevent proliferation, and to adopt national laws to that effect. Iran claims that all its nuclear programmes, including those previously hidden from the IAEA are intended for peaceful purposes. In Iran signed the IAEA's Additional Protocol that allows the agency to carry out highly intrusive inspections, anytime, anywhere. See Cirincione et al. See Daryl G.
151 Trading Strategies
Few people recall that President John F. It shall give notice of such withdrawal to all other Parties to the Treaty and to the United Nations Security Council three months in advance.
I am indebted to an anonymous reviewer for bringing this initiative to my attention. Only the UK has given a hint that it takes its disarmament commitments seriously by studying the verification problems involved in implementing a nuclear weapons convention. Pilat and Robert E. Pendley eds. An example is the B, a bunker-buster tactical nuclear weapon that might be used against underground nuclear sites in Iran.
For fiscal year , the US Congress decided not to fund new bunker-buster nuclear weapons. Skip to Main Content. Search in: This Journal Anywhere. Advanced search. Submit an article Journal homepage. Mario E. Pages Published online: 14 Feb Original Articles. Can the NPT Survive? Quoted in Talbott, Engaging India , p. See note 18 above. Article Metrics Views.
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Jacques E. Published online: 29 Jul Published online: 30 Mar Published online: 27 Jan Published online: 26 Aug Sean M. Published online: 9 Jan The following section deals with genetic risk assessment and the use of family history and genetic testing to clarify genetic status for family members. This section is not meant to address all personal, cultural, or ethical issues that individuals may face or to substitute for consultation with a genetics professional. Parents of an affected male proband. Sibs of an affected male proband. The risk to sibs depends on the genetic status of the mother:.
Sibs of a symptomatic or asymptomatic heterozygous female. Offspring of an affected male.
Documents on the Iranian Nuclear Crisis
Affected males transmit the GLA pathogenic variant to:. Offspring of a symptomatic or asymptomatic heterozygous female. Other family members. At-risk females should be offered clinical examination, genetic counseling , and molecular genetic testing. Molecular genetic testing of at-risk female relatives to determine their genetic status is most informative if the GLA pathogenic variant has been identified in the proband. Ophthalmologic examination for the characteristic whorl-like corneal opacities by slit-lamp microscopy can be considered if enzyme analysis is uninformative and the specific GLA pathogenic variant in the family has not been identified by molecular genetic testing.
Fabry disease practice guidelines are available. See Management, Evaluation of Relatives at Risk for information on evaluating at-risk relatives for the purpose of early diagnosis and treatment. DNA banking is the storage of DNA typically extracted from white blood cells for possible future use. Because it is likely that testing methodology and our understanding of genes, allelic variants, and diseases will improve in the future, consideration should be given to banking DNA of affected individuals.
Molecular genetic testing. Once the GLA pathogenic variant has been identified in an affected family member, prenatal testing for a pregnancy at increased risk and preimplantation genetic diagnosis are possible. Biochemical testing. If the GLA pathogenic variant has been identified in an affected family member, a biochemical diagnosis can be confirmed by molecular genetic testing of fetal DNA. GeneReviews is not responsible for the information provided by other organizations.
For information on selection criteria, click here. Gene structure.